According to UN Women, 35% of women around the world have suffered, at some point in their lives, physical and/or sexual violence by a romantic partner or sexual violence by someone other than their romantic partner. In that year, the rate was 0.99 per 100,000 inhabitants of women population aged 15 years and over.1 According to the Office of National Statistics, in 2016 the women population in those ages was 4,752,137. Then, approximately 47 women were murdered in crimes described as femicides by Cuba. Fourth, some official media―provincial, essentially―have tried to advance these debates in recent years and, on occasion, have succeeded. Now there is much more analysis of gender inequalities in these spaces. Specifically regarding femicides, in 2018, for the first and only time an official media outlet, Cinco de Septiembre, covered a case. In addition to the provincial ones, the discussion on gender has also been installed in Cubadebate, with the Letras de Género column, which is gaining readers.
The Cuban Woman Trap
More than 70% of bank employees are women, while they represent 43.9% of the work force in joint ventures and have proven their their abilities, skills and efficiency. Half a million Cuban women are engaged in highly skilled technical and professional activities. Women’s participation in the Cuban economy during the Special Period did not decrease. During the last four years, the female work force has increased by 36%.The explanation for this phenomenon, contrary to the trend in other countries undergoing economic crises, owes to the fact that 66.1% of professionals and intermediate-level technicians are women. While in 1990 women represented 38.9% of the work force, they now represent 43.6%, which is the equivalent to more than 1.417 million in the public sector.
Although vaccination is the most efficient prophylactic method, because it protects against infection from seven oncogenic HPV genotypes, it is not the only means. HPV infection frequency was greater in students, single or reported having had more than three sexual partners. Student status does not seem to be an independent risk factor in itself, because student status probably coincides with young age, singleness and probably higher-risk sexual behavior. Sexual relations with a large number of partners is a risk factor for HPV and other STIs. Although age is important in viral clearing and tissue repair, it is recognized that diverse factors can modify the course of infection, favoring viral persistence and development of cervical cancer.
When the boat sank after the collisions, 40 people were trapped in there, 23 of them children. If it had been a random accident, it would have received only one hit, but not two serious, separate blows, with time elapsing between the two. In their response of May 4, 1995, the petitioners stated inter aliathat “The people went directly to the tug ’13 de Marzo’ without doing anything else.
The program screens sexually active women aged 25 to 59 years, for whom protocols indicate a Pap test every 3 years. The program may have contributed to the decline in cervical cancer mortality rates from above 20 per 100,000 women in 1965 to 7.7 per 100,000 in 2010. In 2016, it reached 9.1 per 100,000 and in 2018, 9.7 per 100,000. Although these rates are among the lowest in Latin America, the increases are cause for concern. IMPORTANCE This paper characterizes frequency of HPV and Chlamydia trachomatis infection in women of three Cuban provinces and highlights the need to study chlamydia infection in young and adolescent women. It supports the need to include HPV vaccination in the National Immunization Program and contributes knowledge about HPV genotypes in Cuba potentially useful for considering vaccine candidates for domestic production.
In 2011, Guillard was featured in a documentary, “Maestra,” about her youthful role in Cuba’s project cuban beauty to end illiteracy. She has used the fame to talk about many issues Cuba grapples with today.
Safety Problems With Sexy Cuban Women
However, due to the their lack of specificity, false positives occur from cross-reactions with antigens from other micro-organisms, and frequencies of up to 80% have been reported in women with lower abdominal pain. Nucleic acid amplification testing has greater sensitivity and specificity for chlamydia diagnosis, but the cost is prohibitive for broad use in clinical diagnosis in low- and middle-income countries. In Cuba, these tests have been used in a few studies to estimate frequency of chlamydia infections, either by use of polymerase chain reaction or real-time PCR. Despite these findings and the known relationship between HPV and cervical cancer, at the time of this writing, no national baseline studies have been conducted on HPV prevalence and circulating genotypes in Cuba’s female population. Due to shortcomings in prior research, limited to risk groups in a single city, it is of interest to learn frequency of HPV circulation and behavior of sociodemographic and epidemiological variables associated with infection in open populations in several regions of the country. Since 1968, Cuba has implemented a cervical cancer early diagnosis program, now carried out through the national network of neighborhood family doctor-and-nurse offices.